## Introduction

There are many ways to make change for a dollar: two half-dollars, four quarters, ten dimes, 20 nickels, or 100 pennies. No matter how the change is made, the dollar is broken up—“fractured”—into several pieces. These pieces are called fractions, from the same Latin word (*fractus,* meaning “broken”) that fracture comes from.

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All fractions represent parts of a whole. It has long been convenient and customary to divide things into segments. Hours are divided into 60 minutes each. Days are divided into 24 hours and years into 12 months. Miles are divided into feet and kilometers into meters. Each of these segments can be expressed as a fraction. One inch is one twelve part, or one-twelfth, of a foot. Fractions are very helpful because they make possible measurements in other than whole numbers such as 1, 2, or 5. Measurements with fractions can often be more precise: it is more exact to say “four and one-tenth gallons” than “a little more than four gallons.”

## Types of Fractions

In everyday mathematics there are two types of fractions, common and decimal. The only difference between the two is in how they are written. All fractions are written using the same symbols used to write whole numbers, but the symbols are used in a different way. Common fractions are written as 4/10 or 7/100: four over ten and seven over one hundred. The same numbers, when appearing as decimal fractions, would be 0.4 and 0.07. These would usually be read as “point four” and “point zero seven.” They express the same amounts.

In a common fraction, the number below the line is the denominator, and the number above the line is the numerator. In reading a common fraction, the numerator is stated first. Thus, 2/3 is read as two-thirds. Any number except zero can be either a denominator or a numerator. What is being expressed in a common fraction is not only a quantity but also a ratio: the relationship of one quantity to another. For example, the fraction 1/2 expresses the ratio of one to two: The relationship of one to two is that one is half of two. The uses of a ratio are quite common. When a baker makes a cake, he may use two cups of sugar for every three cups of flour: The ratio is two to three, and it may be expressed as a fraction, 2/3.

Decimal fractions are so called because they are based on the decimal, or base-ten, numbering system (see Numeration Systems and Numbers). Sometimes referred to simply as “decimals,” all decimal fractions consist of one or more numbers preceded by a dot called the decimal point: 0.4, for example, is read as four-tenths. If there is only one figure to the right of the decimal point, the fraction is always read as “tenths.” If there are two figures, the fraction is read as “hundredths,” and if there are three, it is read as “thousandths.” In other words, decimal fractions follow the same progression as do whole numbers, where the first digit is in the “tens” column, the second in the “hundreds,” and so forth (see Arithmetic). As examples, the decimal 0.075 is read as “seventy-five thousandths,” and the fraction 0.3852 as “three thousand, eight hundred fifty-two ten-thousandths.”

In common fractions, any number may be a denominator. But in decimals, the unwritten denominator is always 10, or some power of 10 such as 100, 1,000, 10,000, and so on. This means that it is simple to change a decimal fraction into a common fraction by putting the proper denominator under the number to the right of the decimal point. Thus, 0.85 becomes the common fraction 85/100.

To change a common fraction into a decimal, one must divide the numerator by the denominator. In this way, 3/4 can be changed into the decimal 0.75. Not all common fractions, however, can be changed into such precise decimals: 2/3 as a decimal is an endless series of sixes to the right of the decimal point.

### Common fractions.

There are four kinds of common fractions: proper, improper, mixed, and complex. A proper fraction has a numerator smaller than the denominator, such as 3/4. Therefore the value of a proper fraction is always less than one. In improper fractions, the numerator is equal to, or larger than, the denominator, as 4/4 or 6/5. Thus all improper fractions are equal to, or larger than, one.

A mixed fraction, also called a mixed number, consists of a whole number and a fraction, such as 2 1/3. Any mixed fraction can be changed into an improper fraction by multiplying the whole number by the denominator, adding the result to the numerator, and placing the total over the original denominator. In this way 2 1/3 can be changed into 7/3.

Complex fractions, used in higher mathematics, do not consist of natural numbers. For instance, the square root of two over the square root of five is considered a complex fraction:

Similarly, the use of mixed fractions for both numerator and denominator would create a complex fraction:

### Decimal fractions.

Mixed decimals, known as decimal mixed numbers, occur if a number has figures both to the left and to the right of the decimal point. The number 2.38 is an example: It is read as “two and thirty-eight hundredths.” The word “and” is used only where the decimal point appears in order to separate the whole number from the decimal fraction. To avoid confusion, the normal practice for reading decimals is to say “point” instead of “and.” The number 2.38 would be read “two point three eight.”

There cannot be improper decimal fractions, because no numerator (decimal number) could ever exceed the understood denominator (tenths, hundredths, and so on). Anything larger than a decimal fraction would be a mixed or a whole number. Nor would it be possible to express a complex fraction as a decimal with any precision.

## Computing with Decimal Fractions

It is possible to add, subtract, multiply, and divide with fractions just as with whole numbers. These operations are more easily done with decimals, because the procedures are quite similar to using whole numbers. The difference comes in remembering the right placement of the decimal point. It must also be noted that in addition or subtraction, each of the numbers must have the same number of decimal places. To add or subtract uneven decimals, zeros may have to be added to one of the numbers. For instance, to add 3.68 to 7.5, it would be necessary to put a zero at the end of the second decimal to make it 7.50. And in adding or subtracting, the decimal points must always be in a straight column. To perform this addition the numbers should be written thus:

The same principles apply when subtracting decimals, and the operation is identical to subtracting whole numbers, except for the presence of the decimal point. If the above problem were to be done as subtraction, it would appear in the same way; only the result would be different:

Notice that the zero must be placed at the end of 7.5 so there is something to subtract the 8 from.

Multiplying with decimals is no more difficult than with whole numbers, except for remembering the correct placement of the decimal point. The chief difference from addition and subtraction is that zeros do not have to be added to fill out a decimal fraction. This is because the adding of zeros might well confuse the placement of the decimal point.

There are certain rules to follow in multiplying with decimals that aid in correct placement of the decimal point.

Rule 1. If a decimal is multiplied by a whole number, the number of decimal places in the product is the same as the number of decimal places in the number multiplied.

The problem of multiplying the decimal six-tenths (0.6) by four (4) looks like this:

Note that the decimal point is placed before the 4 in the product, because there was only one decimal place in the number multiplied (0.6).

Rule 2. If a whole number is multiplied by a decimal, the number of decimal places in the product is the same as the number of decimal places in the multiplier. (Note that this is the reverse of Rule 1 but is exactly the same principle.) To multiply 32 by 2.5, the problem is set up as follows:

Note again the placement of the decimal. There was only one decimal place in the multiplier (2.5), therefore only one appears in the product (80.0). In this case, however, the decimal can be eliminated, because 80 is a whole number. Had the multiplier been 2.6, the product would have been 83.2, a mixed decimal, and the decimal point would have been retained.

Rule 3. If a decimal is multiplied by a decimal, the number of decimal places in the product is equal to the number of decimal places in the multiplier plus the number of decimal places in the number that is multiplied. If the multiplier and number multiplied together have a total of four decimal places, there will be four decimal places in the product. (Any zeros at the end may, of course, be eliminated.) The problem of multiplying 0.56 by 0.44 is set up as follows:

The total shows four decimal places because the multiplier and number multiplied together had four decimal places. In multiplying mixed decimals, the same principle applies. The product of 33.5 × 6.055 is 202.8425, showing four decimal places.

The process of dividing with decimals is the same as with whole numbers, but it is necessary to be especially careful of decimal point placement. In division there is one main point to remember: the placement of the decimal point in the answer is determined by the placement of the decimal point in the number being divided. As in multiplication, certain rules are helpful.

Rule 1. If a decimal is divided by a whole number, the number of decimal places in the answer is the same as the number of decimal places in the decimal being divided.

Thus, if 0.06 is divided by 2, the answer is 0.03.

Rule 2. When a whole number is divided by a decimal, it is necessary first to convert the decimal to a whole number by moving the decimal point to the right. The decimal point in the number being divided must then be moved the same number of places to the right and zeros added as necessary. The decimal point in the answer is then placed directly above the decimal point in the number being divided:

Rule 3. In dividing a decimal by a decimal, the number being divided by is again converted to a whole number, with the decimal point in the number being divided and the decimal point in the answer moved accordingly. Therefore, the answer obtained from dividing 6.816 by 2.13 is 3.2, with one decimal place, obtained by following this rule.

## Computing with Common Fractions

This procedure is somewhat more complex than with decimals. But it can be simplified if one remembers to make all the fractions have the same denominator. This can be done easily because dividing or multiplying both terms of a fraction by the same number does not change its value. Therefore, to add 2/3 and 3/4, it is necessary to find a common denominator. In this case it is 12. The problem becomes 8/12 + 9/12. The result is found by adding the numerators (8 + 9) to get 17/12. This answer can be changed to a mixed fraction or a decimal.

The process for subtraction is similar. Find the common denominator, then subtract one numerator from the other:

When dealing with mixed fractions, such as 2 1/3 + 3 3/4, change them into improper fractions:

Then find the common denominator:

This can be changed back to a mixed fraction or to a decimal (6 1/12, or a bit over 6.08).

In multiplying fractions, both the numerator and the denominator are multiplied. But it is not necessary to find the common denominator. To multiply 3/5 by 2/3, multiply the two numerators (3 and 2) to get 6, then the two denominators (5 and 3) to get 15. The answer is 6/15. This can be reduced to 2/5, which has the same value, by dividing both terms by 3. Mixed fractions again must be changed to improper fractions before multiplying.

Division with fractions is always done as a multiplication. When any whole number, mixed fraction, or proper fraction is divided by another fraction, that fraction (the divisor) is inverted.

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Then the two numbers are multiplied as explained in the text above. To divide 3/8 by 3/4, invert the divisor (3/4) to get 4/3; then multiply to get 12/24, which can be reduced to 1/2.

If a whole number is divided by a fraction, the fraction is inverted, and the whole number is multiplied by the numerator: